Publication Excerpts from “Security Forces in African States: Cases and Assessment”

The following are publication excerpts from Security Forces in African States: Cases and Assessment, edited by Paul Shemella and Nicholas Tomb.

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Publisher Cambria Press Publication Security Forces in African States

Excerpt from chapter 1, “The Larger Context”

Armed forces can be used to help governments improve human security along the difficult road to prosperity, literacy, political stability, and domestic tranquility. But that is not the primary role of armies and navies. As central as security is to social well-being, good governance is largely an exercise in making distinctions between these two broad types of security, and then applying armed forces, law enforcement, and intelligence resources appropriately (in coordination with the rest of the government). Too often, the military leg of this triad—driven by fearful or misguided politicians—actually serves to diminish human security. Perhaps the most essential element of governing well is making security forces part of the solution rather than part of the problem.”

Excerpt from chapter 2 “Tools for Assessment of Security: Level 1 and Level 2”

The tools offered in this chapter can be used in various ways to evaluate how well a selected African government is governing and developing its security force institutions. Within this set of tools also lie the means to assess how well single security institutions are performing their roles and expected missions.”

[…]

“Although this framework would be useful for Western governments in their efforts to support African government reform, the most significant application would be as a method for African governments to assess themselves.

The case studies that follow will draw on the analytical tools in this chapter to discuss the efforts of those governments to govern and operate their security forces. The cases have been selected to illustrate a diversity of responses to universal security challenges. In addition to examining the unique aspects of particular countries, each case study will address specifically the following set of questions, derived directly from tables 1 through 4:

  • What is the “national brand” of the country as a consequence of the way the government uses its armed forces?
  • What are the most significant threats that must be dealt with by the security sector?
  • What are the roles of the armed forces and law enforcement forces, and how do they complement one another?
  • Into which category of political system does the country fit most accurately? To what degree do security institutions influence the government’s political system?
  • Does the governance and capacity of the security sector contribute to healthy relationships between security forces and society, as well as good governance overall? If not, why not?
  • What are the trends for security sector institutions, and are there measures of effectiveness that can be captured and tracked over time?”

Excerpt from chapter 3, “The Case of the Democratic Republic of Congo”

“The Congo is sometimes described as the heart of Africa, and like any vital organ its condition will have a fundamental impact on the broader body. With a population of 80 million people, an enormous amount of territory, and nine neighboring countries, it is the key to stability in the region. If the culture of corruption and impunity can be replaced with accountability, good governance—and democratically elected civilian control of the armed forces—the DRC could become the breadbasket of Southern Africa that it rightfully should be. If things continue as they are, the ruling elite will use the security forces to enrich themselves at the expense of the citizenry, and risk throwing the entire region into chaos.”

This book is part of the Rapid Communications in Conflict and Security (RCCS) Series (General Editor: Geoffrey R.H. Burn).

Key words

Addis Ababa

Africa Parks

African Party of Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC)

African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM)

Afrobarometer

air force

Al Qaeda

Al Shabaab

al-Bashir, Omar

Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)

Alstom SA

Amhara

amnesty

Amnesty International

Angola

Ansar Dine

armed forces

army

Asab

authoritarian regime

bad governance

Badme War

Bardo National Museum

Belgium

Ben Ali

Benin

Berlin

Bishoftu

Boko Haram

border violation [border violation, borders violation]

Brazil

budgets

Burkina Faso

Camara, Dadis

Cameroon

capability

capacity

capacity measure [capacity measure, capacity measures]

Carter Center

Carvalho, Ana Larcher

cattle rustling

Center for Civil-Military Relations (CCMR)

Central African Republic (CAR)

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Cheick Modibo Diarra

child labor

child soldiers

China Poly Group

civil society

civil war

civil-military relations

climate change

coast guard

coercive force

Cold War

collapsed states

Collier, Paul

colonial history

combat experience

complementarity

Conakry

Condé, Alpha

Congo Free State

Constitution

constitutional democracy

Conté, Lansana

corruption

Côte d’Ivoire

Counter Terrorism Center (CTC)

counterinsurgency

counterterrorism

coup d’état

cronyism

culture

cyber attacks

Czechoslovakia

Darfur

Déby, Idriss

defender

defense committees

Defense Institute for International Legal Studies (DIILS)

democracy

democratic consolidation

democratic control

Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (DFLR)

democratic transition

democratization

Department of State Dignitary Protection Detail

Derg Regime

Desalegne, Haile Miriam

desertification

desired outcome

diplomacy

Dire Dawa

Doha Centre for Media Freedom

drought

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)

drug trafficking

East Africa

Ebola

Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)

Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG)

economic development

education

effectiveness

efficiency

elections

elephants

England

environmental pollution

Eritrea

Ethiopia/Eritrea War

Ethiopian National Defense Forces (ENDF)

ethnic conflict

European Union (EU)

extrajudicial killings

extremism

Eyadéma, Gnassingbé [Eyadéma]

failed state

famine

Faure, Gnassingbé,

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

Federal Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission (FEACC)

female

fireman

First Congo War

flooding

food insecurity

Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo (FARDC)

France

Freedom House

Gadhafi, Muammar

Gafat Armament Engineering Complex

gendarmerie

gender

Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF)

geography

George W. Bush

Germany

Global Political Agreement

globalization

good governance

governance measure [governance measure, governance measures]

Grand Renaissance Dam

Great Lakes region

Grindle, Merilee

Grunitzky, Nicolas

guardians

Gulf of Guinea

Habré, Hissène

Haile Selassie

Haleb Island

health insecurity

Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative

Hibret Machine Tools

High Council of Student Association Movements (HACAME)

Human Development Index (HDI)

human resources management system

human rights

human rights abuses

human rights groups

Human Rights Report

Hutu

ignorance

Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS)

Independent Policing Oversight Authority (IPOA)

information campaign

infrastructure

institutionalized competitive states

institutionalized noncompetitive states

institutions

insurgency

intelligence

intelligence fusion center

interagency

interagency operations

internal security forces

International Crisis Group (ICG)

invasion

Islam

Islamic Courts

Islamic State

ivory

Jasmine Revolution

jihadist

jihadist terrorism

judicial oversight

judicial review

Kabila, Joseph

Kabila, Laurent

Kabye

Kidal

King Leopold II

Kinshasa

Konaré, Alpha Oumar

Lake Chad

Lake Chad Basin

law enforcement

leadership

legal framework

legislative oversight

Liberia

Libya

locust infestations

Lomé

Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)

Mai Mai militia

major shortfalls

Malinké

maritime security

mass migration

Mbuji-Mayi

Meles Zenawi Asres

Mengistu Haile Mariam

merit-based promotion

Metals & Engineering Corporation (METEC)

military exclusion zones

Military Function High Council

military manufacturing

military operations

Military Section Committees

militias

minimally institutionalized states

Ministry of Defense and Veteran Affairs

Ministry of Internal Security

Ministry of Security and Civil Protection

Mobutu Sese Seko

Modibo Kéïta

money laundering

Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND)

Movement for the Unity and Jihad in West Africa (MUJAO)

Mozambique

Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA)

Mungiki

munitions factory

N’Diaye, Boubacar

narco trafficking

National Assembly

national brand

National Conference in Lomé

National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)

national defense

National Defense and Security Policy

national economy

national guard

National Independent Elections Commission

National Intelligence Agency (ANR)

National Intelligence and Security Service (NISS)

National Intelligence Service (NIS)

National Police Service Commission (NPSC)

National Security Council (NSC)

natural disaster

navy

Nazareth Canvas and Garment Factory

nepotism

Niger

Niger Delta

North Korea

Nye, Joseph

Olympio, Sylvanus

opposition leaders

Optimal Protection Services

organized crime

Oromia

Ouagadougou Accord

Oxfam International

peace-building

peacekeeper

peacekeeping

personal rule

Plato

Police Nationale Congolaise (PNC)

policemen

political opposition

political partisanship [partisanship]

political violence

polling

Portugal

poverty

power

Power, Samantha

President Guard Battalion

Prime Minister

private security companies

Private Security Regulatory Authority

Processing and Research Center

public disorder [“manifested in multiple categories”]

public goods

public health

public safety

Radisson Blu

rape

Rapid Response Units

rebels

reciprocity

refugees

Regional Police Commissions

Republican Guard

resource trap

resources

Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)

risk

rule of law

Rwanda

Sahel

Samora

Sanogo, Amadou Haya

Schumpeter

Second Congo War

Secret Service

sectarian violence

security

Security Advisory Services

security companies

security sector reform (SSR)

Senegal

sex workers

sexual trafficking

sexual-based violence

Shell Oil

Sierra Leone

smuggling

Somalia

Sousse

Soviet Union

special forces

Special Forces Battalion

Spire Corp.

strategic vision

Sudan

tactical air control patrols

terrorism

terrorist attacks

Third Wave

391st Commando Battalion

Timbuktu

torture

Touré, Ahmed Sékou

Touré, Amadou Toumani

tourism

trafficking

training

Transitional National Government of Somalia (TNG)

transparency

Transparency International

Transportation Security Administration (TSA)

Traoré, Dioncounda

Traoré, Moussa

tribalism

troublemaker

trust

Tuareg

Uganda

UN Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNIOGBIS)

UN Organization for Stabilization in DR Congo (MONUSCO)

UN Security Council (UNSC)

Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ)

Union of Islamic Courts (UIC)

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

United Nations

United Nations Joint Human Rights Office (UNJHRO)

United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA)

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)

United States Naval Postgraduate School (NPS)

University of Addis Ababa

University of Kara

US

US Department of State

US Special Forces

Usalama Reform Forum

vulnerability

warfighter

Warsaw Pact

Waterproof Shield

West Africa

West Virginia

Westgate Mall

white paper

wildlife poaching

World Bank

World Health Organization (WHO)

World War II

Yar’Adua, Umaru

Zaire

Zimbabwe

Title: Security Forces in African States: Cases and Assessment
Authors: Paul Shemella and Nicholas Tomb, eds.
Publisher: Cambria Press
ISBN: 9781604979817
294 pp.  |   2017   |   Paperback & E-book
Book Webpage: http://www.cambriapress.com/books/9781604979817.cfm

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China and the Artic – International Relations and the Arctic

 

Cambria Press academic publisher

Cambria Press New Book! International Relations and the Arctic, a 742-page study by the world’s leading experts in Arctic affairs

An article in The Economist today discusses China and the Arctic, which is detailed in International Relations and the Arctic edited by Robert W. Murray and Anita Dey Nuttall, which has just been published by Cambria Press.

The article echoes the findings of their study regarding China’s strong interest. The book states that: “China’s northward gaze continues to receive the most attention in political, media, and academic circles. Much of this arises from the perceived concern over the impact a vast, resource-hungry economy such as China’s will have on the Arctic, where new maritime routes for trade could potentially be charted and resources such as hydrocarbons and minerals could become economically viable for exploitation. Since 2007, China has participated as an ad hoc observer at Arctic Council meetings, which allowed it to gain a better understanding of the council’s work. It had also officially expressed its intentions to become a permanent observer to the Arctic Council since 2008. … In the long term, the resources they are now dedicating to strengthening their ability to operate in the polar regions demonstrate that China will increasingly be an important player in the region.”

The book also notes India’s interest: “Connected to India’s position on wanting observer status is, no doubt, the political calculation India made when noting China’s efforts at gaining permanent observer status at the Arctic Council. India’s historic rivalry with China—which saw two wars fought between them, as well as their competing geostrategic ambitions centering on the Siachen Glacier in the eastern Karakoram range of the Himalaya mountains (the Hindu Kush-Himalayan and Tibetan plateau region is often regarded as the “Third Pole”)—brings another geopolitical dimension to the nature of the interests expressed by these two large Asian countries in the polar regions, particularly the developments taking place in the Arctic.”

In the conclusion of the chapter on Asia and the Arctic, the authors caution that: “The gradual disappearance of Arctic sea ice raises serious sovereignty and security issues, some of which are increasingly evident in evolving relationships between the eight Arctic states and observer states such as China, Japan, South Korea, and India.”

The book is the first systematic study of Arctic international relations which brings together the world’s leading experts in Arctic affairs to demonstrate the multifaceted and essential nature of circumpolar politics. This volume successfully presents the reader with the theoretical tools necessary to approach the study of the Arctic, comprehensive studies of the policies of the eight Arctic states, an introduction to those non-Arctic states pursuing Arctic goals of their own, and the various institutional bodies and frameworks that address Arctic issues. Together, they paint a picture of a region undergoing profound change both politically and environmentally, and serve to map ways forward to a new and sophisticated understanding of Arctic international relations.

International Relations and the Arctic is core reading for political scientists, historians, anthropologists, geographers and any other observer interested in the politics of the Arctic region.

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